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Eur J Endocrinol. 2004 Sep;151(3):333-41.

Mutations in the NSD1 gene in patients with Sotos syndrome associate with endocrine and paracrine alterations in the IGF system.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.



To investigate the effect of nuclear receptor Su-var, 3-9, enhancer of zeste, trithorax (SET) domain-containing protein 1 (NSD1) gene alteration in patients with Sotos syndrome on plasma IGFs and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), as well as on the IGF/IGFBP system activity at the tissue level.


Twenty-nine patients suspected of Sotos syndrome were divided into two groups: patients with heterozygous deletions or mutations in the NSD1 gene (NSD1(+/-)) (n=11) and subjects without (NSD1(+/+)) (n=18). Plasma samples (n=29) and skin fibroblasts (n=23) were obtained. The results of both groups were compared and related to reference values.


IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-6 levels were determined by RIAs. The mitogenic response of fibroblasts to IGFs was investigated by [methyl-(3)H]thymidine incorporation. IGFBP-3 levels in the culture media were measured by RIA. IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was determined by real time RT-PCR.


NSD1(+/-) patients showed significantly altered levels of IGF-I (mean-1.2 SDS), IGF-II (-1.2), IGFBP-3 (-1.7), IGFBP-4 (-0.4), IGFBP-2 (+0.8) and IGFBP-6 (+1.5). The NSD1(+/+) patients did not differ from the reference, with the exception of the mean IGFBP-3 level (-1.3). Basal proliferation and mitogenic response to IGFs was diminished in NSD1(+/-) fibroblasts compared with NSD1(+/+) (basal, P=0.02; IGF-I, P<0.001; IGF-II, P=0.02). Compared with control fibroblasts, only the mitogenic response was diminished (basal, P=0.07; IGF-I, P=0.04; IGF-II, P=0.04). A trend of higher IGFBP-3 secretion after IGF-I stimulation (P=0.09) and 3.5-5 times higher mRNA expression of IGFBP-3 in basal conditions was found in NSD1(+/-) fibroblasts in comparison to controls.


NSD1(+/-) patients show endocrine and paracrine changes in the IGF system. These changes may contribute to the abnormal growth pattern.

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