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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004 Aug;24(8):829-39.

Multiplexed cytokine protein expression profiles from spreading depression in hippocampal organotypic cultures.

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Department of Neurology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.


Cytokines are involved in ischemic tolerance, including that triggered by spreading depression (SD), yet their roles in neuroprotection remain incompletely defined. The latter may stem from the pleiotropic nature of these signaling molecules whose complexities for interaction might be better deciphered through simultaneous measurement of multiple targeted proteins. Accordingly, the authors used microsphere-based flow cytometric immunoassays and hippocampal organotypic cultures (HOTCs) to characterize the magnitude, time course, and diversity of cytokine (interleukin [IL] 1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma], and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha]) response to SD. GM-CSF was not detected in HOTCs or media. However, SD triggered a significant, generalized increase in seven cytokines evident in HOTCs 6 hours later, with the remaining cytokine, IL-1beta, becoming significantly different at 1 and 3 days. Additionally, these changes extended to include surrounding media for IL-6 and TNF-alpha by 1 and 3 days. This increase was localized to microglia via immunostaining for IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and interferon-y. IL-10, although significantly more abundant in HOTCs 6 hours after SD, was significantly less abundant in surrounding media at that time and at 1 day. Finally, the generalized early increase in tissue cytokines later settled to a pattern at 3 days of recovery centering on changes in IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha, cytokines capable of modulating ischemic injury.

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