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Curr Opin Lipidol. 2004 Oct;15(5):523-9.

Caveolin-1 and caveolae in atherosclerosis: differential roles in fatty streak formation and neointimal hyperplasia.

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1
Department of Molecular Pharmacology and the Albert Einstein Diabetes Research and Training Center (DRTC), and Department of Urology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, The Bronx, New York 10461, USA. pfrank@aecom.yu.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Caveolae are 50-100 nm cell surface plasma membrane invaginations observed in terminally differentiated cells. They are characterized by the presence of the protein marker caveolin-1. Caveolae and caveolin-1 are present in almost every cell type that has been implicated in the development of an atheroma. These include endothelial cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells. Caveolae and caveolin-1 are involved in regulating several signal transduction pathways and processes that play an important role in atherosclerosis.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Several recent studies using genetically engineered mice (Cav-1 (-/-) null animals) have now clearly demonstrated a role for caveolin-1 and caveolae in the development of atherosclerosis. In fact, they suggest a rather complex one, either proatherogenic or antiatherogenic, depending on the cell type examined. For example, in endothelial cells, caveolin-1 and caveolae may play a proatherogenic role by promoting the transcytosis of LDL-cholesterol particles from the blood to the sub-endothelial space. In contrast, in smooth muscle cells, the ability of caveolin-1 to negatively regulate cell proliferation (neointimal hyperplasia) may have an antiatherogenic effect.

SUMMARY:

Caveolin-1 and caveolae play an important role in several steps involved in the initiation of an atheroma. Development of new drugs that regulate caveolin-1 expression may be important in the prevention or treatment of atherosclerotic vascular disease.

PMID:
15361787
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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