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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Aug 4;44(3):661-6.

Roles of endogenous monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in ischemia-induced neovascularization.

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Third Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Institute, Kurume University, Kurume, Japan.



We sought to investigate the role of endogenous monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in ischemia-induced neovascularization.


Roles of inflammatory changes including macrophage infiltration are suggested in ischemic neovascularization.


Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced by excising surgically the entire femoral artery and vein in mice. Immediately after operation, plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid encoding a dominant negative mutant of MCP-1 (7ND) or the empty plasmid (mock) was injected into the ipsilateral thigh adductor muscle.


In mock-treated mice, MCP-1 was upregulated transiently in ischemic hindlimb peaking at day 3. Serial laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF) analysis showed an abrupt decrease in blood flow, followed by a recovery to the near-normal levels in mock-treated mice; 7ND treatment had no effects on the initial decrease in LDBF but deteriorated the recovery. At day 3, macrophage infiltration and inductions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were prominent in the ischemic adductor muscle in mock-treated mice; 7ND treatment significantly reduced macrophage infiltration and suppressed TNF-alpha and VEGF inductions in response to ischemia. At day 21, postmortem angiography and anti-CD31 immunohistostaining revealed well-developed collateral vessels and capillary formation, respectively, in the ischemic muscle of mock-treated mice; 7ND overexpression remarkably suppressed the collateral vessel formation and capillary formation.


Endogenous MCP-1 may play a role in ischemia-induced neovascularization by recruiting macrophages that activate TNF-alpha and VEGF inductions.

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