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Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2004 Jul;32(3):187-200.

[Neurofeedback for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and adolescence].

[Article in German]

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Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie des Kindes- und Jugendalters, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt.



A variety of non-pharmacological treatments for ADHD have failed to prove their effectiveness. The basis of evidence for neurofeedback (or EEG-biofeedback) has improved recently. Neurofeedback is aiming at an improvement of ADHD core-symptoms via the voluntary modification of abnormal neurophysiologic parameters, e.g. EEG-frequency spectrum and event-related potentials.


Our review presents an overview of the current research on neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD.


In three controlled studies short-term effects of feedback matched those of stimulant treatment. Neurofeedback lead to significant improvement of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, without adversive side effects. Additionally, there was a persistent amelioration of EEG parameters, while stimulants did not lead to a comparable normalization. Results on the stability of feedback effects are encouraging but are based on small numbers of patients.


Neurofeedback is a promising approach for the treatment of children with ADHD. However, there is a demand for further controlled studies using standardized diagnostic criteria, sufficient sample sizes and appropriate measures and follow-up.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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