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Science. 2004 Sep 3;305(5689):1465-6.

Molecular shaping of the beak.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Abstract

Beak shape is a classic example of evolutionary diversification. Beak development in chicken and duck was used to examine morphological variations among avian species. There is only one proliferative zone in the frontonasal mass of chickens, but two in ducks. These growth zones are associated with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) activity. By "tinkering" with BMP4 in beak prominences, the shapes of the chicken beak can be modulated.

PMID:
15353803
PMCID:
PMC4380220
DOI:
10.1126/science.1098109
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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