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Blood. 2005 Jan 1;105(1):13-21. Epub 2004 Sep 7.

The CD28 family: a T-cell rheostat for therapeutic control of T-cell activation.

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Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6160, USA.


The CD28 family of receptors (CD28, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4], inducible costimulator [ICOS], program death-1 [PD-1], and B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator [BTLA]) plays a critical role in controlling the adaptive arm of the immune response. While considerable information is available regarding CD28 and CTLA-4, the function of the more recently discovered members of the CD28 family is less well understood. This review will highlight recent findings regarding the CD28 family with special emphasis on effects the CD28 family has on immunopathology, the discovery of costimulatory antibodies with superagonist function, and the status of clinical trials using various strategies to augment or block T-cell costimulation.

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