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Can J Vet Res. 2004 Jul;68(3):208-14.

An assessment of sanitation protocols for commercial transport vehicles contaminated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

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Swine Disease Eradication Center, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, 1988 Fitch Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA.


The objective of this study was to develop and test a rapid (< 2 h) sanitation protocol designed for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) positive commercial transport vehicles involving cold water washing and disinfection via fumigation using scale models of weaned pig trailers. The study consisted of 2 phases. Following experimental contamination of model trailers with PRRSV MN 30-100 (5 x 10(5)TCID50), phase 1 evaluated the presence or absence of PRRSV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on swabs collected from the trailer interiors 0, 60, and 90 min after treatment. Phase 2 consisted of evaluating the infectivity of trailers 90 min posttreatment by monitoring changes in the PRRSV-status of naive sentinel pigs housed for 2 h. Treatments included washing only (treatment 1), washing plus formaldehyde fumigation (treatment 2), washing plus fumigation with glutaraldehyde-quaternary ammonium chloride (treatment 3), and washing plus overnight drying (treatment 4). Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus RNA was detected in all trailers (20 out of 20 replicates) at 60 and 90 min following the application of treatments 1 and 2. These trailers also contained infectious PRRSV, as determined by the infection of naive pigs housed in treated trailers and the testing of organic debris collected from the interior of trailers by swine bioassay. At 90 min posttreatment, all trailers treated with glutaraldehyde-quaternary ammonium chloride were PCR-negative, non-infectious to sentinel pigs, and swine bioassay negative. Similar results were observed in trailers allowed to dry for 8 h. Under the conditions of this study, it appears certain disinfectants may possess different levels of efficacy against PRRSV and PRRSV-positive models may be effectively sanitized in the absence of overnight drying.

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