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Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005 Feb;288(2):G337-45. Epub 2004 Sep 2.

Activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 inhibits neurally evoked chloride secretion in the mouse colon in vitro.

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Mucosal Inflammation Research Group, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.


The proteinase-activated thrombin receptor-1 (PAR-1) belongs to a unique family of G protein-coupled receptors activated by proteolytic cleavage. We studied the effect of PAR-1 activation in the regulation of ion transport in mouse colon in vitro. Expression of PAR-1 in mouse colon was assessed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. To study the role of PAR-1 activation in chloride secretion, mouse colon was mounted in Ussing chambers. Changes in short-circuit current (Isc) were measured in tissues exposed to either thrombin, saline, the PAR-1-activating peptide TFLLR-NH2, or the inactive reverse peptide RLLFT-NH2, before electrical field stimulation (EFS). Experiments were repeated in the presence of either a PAR-1 antagonist or in PAR-1-deficient mice to assess receptor specificity. In addition, studies were conducted in the presence of chloride-free buffer or the muscarinic antagonist atropine to assess chloride dependency and the role of cholinergic neurons in the PAR-1-induced effect. PAR-1 mRNA was expressed in full-thickness specimens and mucosal scrapings of mouse colon. PAR-1 immunoreactivity was found on epithelial cells and on neurons in submucosal ganglia where it was colocalized with both VIP and neuropeptide Y. After PAR-1 activation by thrombin or TFLLR-NH2, secretory responses to EFS but not those to forskolin or carbachol were significantly reduced. The reduction in the response to EFS was not observed in the presence of the PAR-1 antagonist, in PAR-1-deficient mice, when chloride was excluded from the bathing medium, or when atropine was present. PAR-1 is expressed in submucosal ganglia in the mouse colon and its activation leads to a decrease in neurally evoked epithelial chloride secretion.

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