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J Hum Hypertens. 2005 Jan;19(1):47-54.

Dose-response of sodium excretion and blood pressure change among overweight, nonhypertensive adults in a 3-year dietary intervention study.

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Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215-1204, USA.


A cross-sectional dose-response relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure (BP) has been demonstrated, but evidence for a graded longitudinal effect is limited. Evaluation of BP response to sodium reduction was assessed in a 3-year lifestyle dietary intervention trial. BP changes at 18 and 36 months after enrollment were analysed according to concurrent quantitative changes in sodium excretion and by categories of success in sodium reduction among 1157 men and women, ages 30-54 years, with a diastolic BP (DBP) 83-89 mmHg, systolic BP (SBP) <140 mmHg, body weight 110-165% of sex-specific standard weight, and valid baseline urinary sodium excretion. Participants were randomized to a Sodium Reduction intervention (n=581) or Usual Care (n=576). From a 187 mmol/24 h baseline mean sodium excretion, net decreases were 44 mmol/24 h at 18 months and 38 mmol/24 h at 36 months in Sodium Reduction vs Usual Care. Corresponding net decreases in SBP/DBP were 2.0/1.4 mmHg at 18 months, and 1.7/0.9 mmHg at 36 months. Significant dose-response trends in BP change over quintiles of achieved sodium excretion were seen at both 18 (SBP and DBP) and 36 (SBP only) months; effects appeared stronger among those maintaining sodium reduction. Estimated SBP decreases per 100 mmol/24 h reduction in sodium excretion at 18 and 36 months were 2.2 and 1.3 mmHg before and 7.0 and 3.6 mmHg after correction for measurement error, respectively. DBP changes were smaller and nonsignificant at 36 months. In conclusion, incremental decreases in BP with lower sodium excretion were observed in these overweight nonhypertensive individuals.

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