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Cancer Res. 2004 Sep 1;64(17):5994-6001.

1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-mediated growth inhibition, transactivation, and differentiation markers in colon cancer cells.

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Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4466, USA.


1,1-Bis(3'indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes containing p-trifluoromethyl (DIM-C-pPhCF)), p-t-butyl (DIM-C-pPhtBu), and p-phenyl (DIM-C-pPhC6H5) groups induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma)-mediated transactivation in HT-29, HCT-15, RKO, and SW480 colon cancer cell lines. Rosiglitazone also induces transactivation in these cell lines and inhibited growth of HT-29 cells, which express wild-type PPARgamma but not HCT-15 cells, which express mutant (K422Q) PPARgamma. In contrast, DIM-C-pPhCF3, DIM-C-pPhtBu, and DIM-C-pPhC6H5 inhibited growth of both HT-29 and HCT-15 cells with IC50 values ranging from 1 to 10 micromol/L. Rosiglitazone and diindolylmethane (DIM) analogues did not affect expression of cyclin D1, p21, or p27 protein levels or apoptosis in HCT-15 or HT-29 cells but induced keratin 18 in both cell lines. However, rosiglitazone induced caveolins 1 and 2 in HT-29 but not HCT-15 cells, whereas these differentiation markers were induced by DIM-C-pPhCF3 and DIM-C-pPhC6H5 in both cell lines. Because overexpression of caveolin 1 is known to suppress colon cancer cell and tumor growth, the growth inhibitory effects of rosiglitazone and the DIM compounds are associated with PPARgamma-dependent induction of caveolins.

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