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J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Sep;52(9):1463-70.

Effectiveness of a group outpatient visit model for chronically ill older health maintenance organization members: a 2-year randomized trial of the cooperative health care clinic.

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Division of Geriatrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA.



To compare the effectiveness of Cooperative Health Care Clinic ((CHCC) group outpatient model for chronically ill, older health maintenance organization (HMO) patients) with usual care.


Two-year, randomized, controlled trial conducted with recruitment from February 1995 through July of 1996.


Nonprofit group model HMO.


Two hundred ninety-four adults (145 intervention and 149 usual care), aged 60 and older (mean age 74.1) with 11 or more outpatient visits in the prior 18 months, one or more self-reported chronic conditions, and expressed interest in participating in a group clinic.


Monthly group meetings held by patients' primary care physicians.


Differences in clinic visits, inpatient admissions, emergency room visits, hospital outpatient services, professional services, home health, and skilled nursing facility admissions; measures of patient satisfaction, quality of life, self-efficacy, and activities of daily living (ADLs).


Outpatient, pharmacy services, home health, and skilled nursing facility use did not differ between groups, but CHCC patients had fewer hospital admissions (P=.012), emergency visits (P=.008), and professional services (P=.005). CHCC patients' costs were $41.80 per member per month less than those of control patients. CHCC patients reported higher satisfaction with their primary care physician (P=.022), better quality of life (P=.002), and greater self-efficacy (P=.03). Health status and ADLs did not differ between groups.


The CHCC model resulted in fewer hospitalizations and emergency visits, increased patient satisfaction, and self-efficacy, but no effect on outpatient use, health, or functional status.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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