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Obes Res. 2004 Aug;12(8):1197-211.

Current and investigational antiobesity agents and obesity therapeutic treatment targets.

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FACP Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center, 3288 Illinois Ave., Louisville, KY 40213, USA.


Public health efforts and current antiobesity agents have not controlled the increasing epidemic of obesity. Investigational antiobesity agents consist of 1) central nervous system agents that affect neurotransmitters or neural ion channels, including antidepressants (bupropion), selective serotonin 2c receptor agonists, antiseizure agents (topiramate, zonisamide), some dopamine antagonists, and cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonists (rimonabant); 2) leptin/insulin/central nervous system pathway agents, including leptin analogues, leptin transport and/or leptin receptor promoters, ciliary neurotrophic factor (Axokine), neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide antagonists, proopiomelanocortin and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript promoters, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogues, melanocortin-4 receptor agonists, and agents that affect insulin metabolism/activity, which include protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1B inhibitors, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma receptor antagonists, short-acting bromocriptine (ergoset), somatostatin agonists (octreotide), and adiponectin; 3) gastrointestinal-neural pathway agents, including those that increase cholecystokinin activity, increase glucagon-like peptide-1 activity (extendin 4, liraglutide, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors), and increase protein YY3-36 activity and those that decrease ghrelin activity, as well as amylin analogues (pramlintide); 4) agents that may increase resting metabolic rate ("selective" beta-3 stimulators/agonist, uncoupling protein homologues, and thyroid receptor agonists); and 5) other more diverse agents, including melanin concentrating hormone antagonists, phytostanol analogues, functional oils, P57, amylase inhibitors, growth hormone fragments, synthetic analogues of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, antagonists of adipocyte 11B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity, corticotropin-releasing hormone agonists, inhibitors of fatty acid synthesis, carboxypeptidase inhibitors, indanones/indanols, aminosterols, and other gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors (ATL962). Finally, an emerging concept is that the development of antiobesity agents must not only reduce fat mass (adiposity) but must also correct fat dysfunction (adiposopathy).

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