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Eur J Surg Oncol. 2004 Oct;30(8):884-92.

The AMORE protocol as salvage treatment for non-orbital head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma in children.

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Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, P.O. Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands.



To investigate the feasibility and outcome of the AMORE protocol as salvage treatment in paediatric head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma (HNRMS).


The AMORE protocol is a local treatment regimen, consisting of Ablative surgery, Moulage technique brachytherapy and surgical Reconstruction, scheduled in 1 week. Patients with recurrent or residual non-orbital HNRMS were eligible for AMORE salvage treatment.


The procedure was feasible in nine out of 11 eligible patients. Five patients were treated for recurrent or residual parameningeal RMS after prior chemoradiation. Local complete remission was achieved in all five patients and maintained in four. Three patients are without evidence of RMS with a follow-up duration of 4-10 years. Two patients developed a distant relapse, together with a local recurrence in one. Both patients died of their disease. Four patients were included for recurrent non-parameningeal HNRMS. Long-term local control at the site of recurrence was obtained in all four patients (follow-up 5-10 years).


The AMORE protocol is a feasible salvage strategy for non-orbital HNRMS even after external beam radiotherapy. The local salvage rate in this series is promising.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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