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Kardiol Pol. 2004 Jun;60(6):552-62; discussion 563.

Relationship between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular mortality--the Warsaw Pol-MONICA Project.

[Article in English, Polish]

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Department of Epidemiology, CV Prevention and Health Promotion, National Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland.



Cardioprotective effects of alcohol recently gained wide spread interest and have been examined in several studies.


To assess the effects of alcohol consumption on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CV) in the population of the Eastern part of Warsaw.


The study group consisted of representative, independent and randomly selected samples of the populations of two Warsaw districts (Praga Północ and Praga Południe), aged between 35 and 64 years. The studied subjects were examined in 1984 (2570 subjects), in 1988 (1397 subjects) and in 1993 (1485 subjects). Their survival rates were followed up until 1998. The annual beer, wine and vodka intake was assessed using a standardised questionnaire and calculated for a daily pure ethanol intake. The studied subjects were divided into four groups: abstinents and three groups according to the tertile distribution of the alcohol intake (mean alcohol intake in the first tertile: males 1.1 g/day, females 0.2 g/day, in the second tertile: 3.9 and 0.4 g/day, respectively, and in the third tertile: 28.2 and 2.8 g/day, respectively). The relative risk of death in the analysed groups was assessed using the proportional hazard Cox analysis.


In total, 471 males and 244 females died during the follow-up period. There were 221 CV deaths among males and 85 among females. The relative risk of CV death after adjustment for other parameters (age, screening, cigarette smoking, body mass index, education level, cholesterol level, anginal symptoms, systolic blood pressure and self-assessed health status) was approximately 40% lower among males who consumed alcohol compared with the abstinents. The lowest risk of CV death was noted in the first tertile group. Females who consumed alcohol, had a 40-70% lower CV risk of death than abstinents the lowest risk was documented for the third tertile group.


Alcohol consumption independently lowers the risk of death due to cardio-vascular diseases.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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