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Environ Res. 2004 Oct;96(2):196-205.

Occurrence and determinants of increases in blood lead levels in children shortly after lead hazard control activities.

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Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, 3223 Eden Avenue ML 0056, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056, USA.


This study is an examination of the effect of lead hazard control strategies on children's blood lead levels immediately after an intervention was conducted as part of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development's Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program. Fourteen state and local government grantees participated in the evaluation. The findings indicated an overall average reduction in the blood lead levels of 869 children soon after the implementation of lead hazard controls. However, 9.3% of these children (n = 81) had blood lead increases of 5 microg/dL or more. Data routinely collected as part of the evaluation, as well as additional information supplied by the individual programs, were used to determine potential reasons for these observed increases in blood lead. A logistic regression analysis indicated that three principal factors were associated with the blood lead increases: the number of exterior deteriorations present in the child's home (prior to intervention), the educational level of the female parent or guardian of the child, and the child's age. The statistical analysis did not find evidence that children living in households that either did not relocate or relocated for less than the full work period were significantly more likely to have a blood lead increase equal to or greater than 5 microg/dL than children living in households that fully relocated. Statistical analyses also did not reveal any single interior strategy to be more or less likely than others to be associated with a blood lead increase of 5 microg/dL or more.

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