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J Biol Chem. 1992 Mar 25;267(9):6322-37.

The crystal structure of muscle phosphoglucomutase refined at 2.7-angstrom resolution.

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  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907.


A model of rabbit muscle phosphoglucomutase was refined at 2.7-A resolution by using two heavy atom derivatives for initial phasing and standard refinement procedures, including molecular replacement averaging about a 2-fold axis and dynamic simulation: final R-factor, 0.223 (no solvent modeling); RMS deviation from standard bond lengths and angles, 0.020 A and 3.6 degrees, respectively (all 8658 nonhydrogen atoms plus 36,953 reflections (F/sigma greater than or equal to 3) between 8- and 2.7-A resolutions); average of individually refined atomic B-factors, 40 A2 (all atoms) and 30 A2 (all atoms in domains I-III). An H-bonding scheme with 538 main chain H-bonds for the two monomers in the asymmetric unit and probable ligands for six uranyl ions in one heavy atom derivative is given. The monomer contains 42 strands/helices arranged into four alpha/beta-domains. Each of the first three domains contains an alpha 3 beta 4 alpha 1 motif, where the topology of beta 4 is 2,1,3,4:[arrows: see text] which is a topology not encountered in an extensive search among known protein structures. A spatial similarity is observed between corresponding residues in the three repetitions of this motif per monomer, but the minimal mutational distance between spatially corresponding residues is not statistically significant. The loop between the antiparallel strands in each of these domains is an important feature of the active site. In domain IV, beta-sheet topology is 2,1,3,4,5,6:[arrows:see text]. Noncovalent domain/domain interactions within the monomer are greatest between adjacent domains along the polypeptide chain, which are not substantially interdigitated and can be cleanly disengaged by altering the phi/psi torsional angles of three uniquely positioned residues in the model. The observed hierarchy of noncovalent interactions between structural units within the crystal, based on a semi-empirical paradigm, suggests that monomer-monomer contacts within the asymmetric unit are formed during growth of the lattice and provides a rationale for some of the diffraction characteristics of phosphoglucomutase crystals. An unusually deep crevice involving 58 residues is formed by the head-to-tail, twisted semicircular arrangement of the four domains of the monomer that places no atom more than 12 A from the water-accessible surface. The active site of the enzyme is extensively buried at the bottom of this crevice, at the approximate confluence of the four domains. Other features of the active site, including the surrounding helical dipoles, and the metal-ion binding pocket are described, together with structure/function comparisons with a number of other enzymes.

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