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Cancer Cell. 2004 Aug;6(2):171-83.

Species- and cell type-specific requirements for cellular transformation.

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Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.

Erratum in

  • Cancer Cell. 2013 Sep 9;24(3):394-8.


Recent evidence suggests that human cells require more genetic changes for neoplastic transformation than do their murine counterparts. However, a precise enumeration of these differences has never been undertaken. We have determined that perturbation of two signaling pathways-involving p53 and Raf-suffices for the tumorigenic conversion of normal murine fibroblasts, while perturbation of six pathways-involving p53, pRb, PP2A, telomerase, Raf, and Ral-GEFs-is needed for human fibroblasts. Cell type-specific differences also exist in the requirements for tumorigenic transformation: immortalized human fibroblasts require the activation of Raf and Ral-GEFs, human embryonic kidney cells require the activation of PI3K and Ral-GEFs, and human mammary epithelial cells require the activation of Raf, PI3K, and Ral-GEFs.

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