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Vnitr Lek. 2004 Jul;50(7):544-9.

[Overweight and obesity--risk factors in the development and progression of renal disease].

[Article in Slovak]

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Vedecko-výskumná základna Slovenskej zdravotníckej univerzity, Ustav preventívnej a klinickej medicíny, Bratislava, Slovenská republika.


Overweight/obesity represent an underestimated risk factor of renal disease. The incidence of obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) tremendously increased within the last decade. The first sign of renal damage in overweight conditions is microalbuminuria or proteinuria, indicating the potential risk of its progression to renal insufficiency and the development of premature cardiovascular events. In the early stage of obesity renal hemodynamics are characterized by a renal hypercirculation and glomerular hyperfiltration, particularly in the presence of hypertension. The hyperfiltration is especially harmful in patients with pre-existing inflammatory and metabolic renal disease, or under the conditions of reduced renal mass. Histopathologically, ORG is characterized by glomerulomegaly with/without signs of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Pathogenetically, numerous factors are involved, e.g. enhanced glomerular capillary pressure, adrenergic nerve overactivity, inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia, dyslipidemia, enhanced clotting tendency and sodium retention. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious complications of obesity-induced diabetes. In the industrial nations type 2 diabetes is the single most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. After kidney transplantation, overweight/obesity is associated with a less favourable prognosis for the survival of the graft and the patient. Incidence of renal cell carcinomas is enhanced in overweight/obesity. Obesity-related renal disease may be prevented/postponed by an early weight reduction, by dietary intervention combined with physical exercise. In the advanced stages of renal disease benefits of weight reduction are minimal. Concomitant administration of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor 1 blockers exerts antiproteinuric effects and thereby aid in retarding the disease progression. Aimed prevention and treatment of obesity represent a challenge for the healthcare system. The concerted action of physicians, patients and the public health authorities is needed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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