Send to

Choose Destination
Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Sep;24(17):7806-19.

NF-kappaB and AP-1 connection: mechanism of NF-kappaB-dependent regulation of AP-1 activity.

Author information

Department of Surgical Oncology, Box 107, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA.


Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors regulate many important biological and pathological processes. Activation of NF-kappaB is regulated by the inducible phosphorylation of NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaB by IkappaB kinase. In contrast, Fos, a key component of AP-1, is primarily transcriptionally regulated by serum responsive factors (SRFs) and ternary complex factors (TCFs). Despite these different regulatory mechanisms, there is an intriguing possibility that NF-kappaB and AP-1 may modulate each other, thus expanding the scope of these two rapidly inducible transcription factors. To determine whether NF-kappaB activity is involved in the regulation of fos expression in response to various stimuli, we analyzed activity of AP-1 and expression of fos, fosB, fra-1, fra-2, jun, junB, and junD, as well as AP-1 downstream target gene VEGF, using MDAPanc-28 and MDAPanc-28/IkappaBalphaM pancreatic tumor cells and wild-type, IKK1-/-, and IKK2-/- murine embryonic fibroblast cells. Our results show that elk-1, a member of TCFs, is one of the NF-kappaB downstream target genes. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity greatly decreased expression of elk-1. Consequently, the reduced level of activated Elk-1 protein by extracellular signal-regulated kinase impeded constitutive, serum-, and superoxide-inducible c-fos expression. Thus, our study revealed a distinct and essential role of NF-kappaB in participating in the regulation of elk-1, c-fos, and VEGF expression.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms


Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center