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Theor Appl Genet. 2004 Nov;109(7):1434-47. Epub 2004 Aug 10.

Full-genome analysis of resistance gene homologues in rice.

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Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-5502, USA.


The availability of the rice genome sequence enabled the global characterization of nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, the largest class of plant disease resistance genes. The rice genome carries approximately 500 NBS-LRR genes that are very similar to the non-Toll/interleukin-1 receptor homology region (TIR) class (class 2) genes of Arabidopsis but none that are homologous to the TIR class genes. Over 100 of these genes were predicted to be pseudogenes in the rice cultivar Nipponbare, but some of these are functional in other rice lines. Over 80 other NBS-encoding genes were identified that belonged to four different classes, only two of which are present in dicotyledonous plant sequences present in databases. Map positions of the identified genes show that these genes occur in clusters, many of which included members from distantly related groups. Members of phylogenetic subgroups of the class 2 NBS-LRR genes mapped to as many as ten different chromosomes. The patterns of duplication of the NBS-LRR genes indicate that they were duplicated by many independent genetic events that have occurred continuously through the expansion of the NBS-LRR superfamily and the evolution of the modern rice genome. Genetic events, such as inversions, that inhibit the ability of recently duplicated genes to recombine promote the divergence of their sequences by inhibiting concerted evolution.

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