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J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2004 Aug;25(4):272-9.

Relative contribution of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders.

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Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Center, Groningen, the Netherlands.


The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire. Patients with a tic disorder with primarily hyperactive-impulsive ADHD had the highest questionnaire scores, patients with primarily inattentive ADHD had medium scores, and patients without ADHD had the lowest scores. On most subscales, significant part correlations with ADHD severity, but not tic severity, were obtained. Severity of obsessions and compulsions was independently correlated with the CBCL Thought Problems subscale but not with most other subscales. There was no significant correlation between tic severity and ADHD severity. Thus, in patients with a tic disorder, the presence and severity of ADHD are the main predictors of associated behavioral and social problems.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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