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J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 15;279(42):44030-8. Epub 2004 Aug 11.

Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated induction of manganese superoxide dismutase occurs through redox-dependent regulation of forkhead and IkappaB/NF-kappaB.

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Division of Molecular and Vascular Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.


The mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays a critical cytoprotective role against oxidative stress. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was shown previously to induce expression of Mn-SOD in endothelial cells by a NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism. The goal of the current study was to determine the transcriptional mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. VEGF resulted in protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of IkappaB and subsequent translocation of p65 NF-kappaB into the nucleus. Overexpression of constitutively active IkappaB blocked VEGF stimulation of Mn-SOD. In transient transfection assays, VEGF increased Mn-SOD promoter activity, an effect that was dependent on a second intronic NF-kappaB consensus motif. In contrast, VEGF-mediated induction of Mn-SOD was enhanced by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 and by dominant negative Akt and was decreased by constitutively active Akt. Overexpression of a constitutively active (phosphorylation-resistant) form of FKHRL1 (TMFKHRL1) resulted in increased Mn-SOD expression, suggesting that the negative effect of PI3K-Akt involves attenuation of forkhead activity. In co-transfection assays, the Mn-SOD promoter was transactivated by TMFKHRL1. Flavoenzyme inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), and antisense oligonucleotides against p47phox (AS-p47phox) inhibited VEGF stimulation of IkappaB/NF-kappaB and forkhead phosphorylation, supporting a role for NADPH oxidase activity in both signaling pathways. Like VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activated the PI3K-Akt-forkhead pathway. However, HGF-PI3K-Akt-forkhead signaling was insensitive to diphenyleneiodonium and AS-p47phox. Moreover, HGF failed to induce phosphorylation of IkappaB/NF-kappaB or nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and had no effect on Mn-SOD expression. Together, these data suggest that VEGF is uniquely coupled to Mn-SOD expression through growth factor-specific reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive positive (protein kinase C-NF-kappaB) and negative (PI3K-Akt-forkhead) signaling pathways.

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