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J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 15;279(42):43692-6. Epub 2004 Aug 11.

Kinetic alterations due to a missense mutation in the Na,K-ATPase alpha2 subunit cause familial hemiplegic migraine type 2.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4, Canada.

Abstract

A number of missense mutations in the ATP1A2 gene, which encodes the Na,K-ATPase alpha2 subunit, have been identified in familial hemiplegic migraine with aura. Loss of function and haploinsufficiency have been the suggested mechanisms in mutants for which functional analysis has been reported. This paper describes a kinetic analysis of mutant T345A, recently identified in a detailed genetic analysis of a large Finnish family (Kaunisto, M. A., Harno, H., Vanmolkot, K. R., Gargus, J. J., Sun, G., Hamalainen, E., Liukkonen, E., Kallela, M., van den Maagdenberg, A. M., Frants, R. R., Farkkila, M., Palotie, A., and Wessman, M. (2004) Neurogenetics 5, 141-146). Introducing T345A into the conserved rat alpha2 enzyme does not alter cell growth or catalytic turnover but causes a substantial decrease in apparent K+ affinity (2-fold increase in K0.5(K+)). In view of the location of Thr-345 in the cytoplasmic stalk domain adjacent to transmembrane segment 4, the 2-fold increase in K0.5(K+) is probably due to T345A replacement altering K+ occlusion/deocclusion. Faster K+ deocclusion of the mutant via the E2(K) + ATP --> E1.ATP + K+ partial reaction is evidenced in (i) a marked increase (300%) in K+ stimulation of Na-ATPase at micromolar ATP, (ii) a 4-fold decrease in KATP, and (iii) only a modest increase (approximately 3-fold) in I50 for vanadate, which was used as a probe of the steady state E1/E2 conformational equilibrium. We suggest that the decreased apparent K+ affinity is the basis for a reduced rate of extracellular K+ removal, which delays the recovery phase of nerve impulse transmission in the central nervous system and, thereby, the clinical picture of migraine with aura. This is the first demonstration of a mutation that leads to a disease associated with a kinetically altered but fully functional Na,K-ATPase, refining the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis in familial hemiplegic migraine.

PMID:
15308625
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.M407471200
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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