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Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004 Dec;287(6):F1204-12. Epub 2004 Aug 10.

Effects of dietary fat, NaCl, and fructose on renal sodium and water transporter abundances and systemic blood pressure.

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Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Georgetown University, Box 571412, Washington, DC 20057-1412, USA.


Dietary fructose, NaCl, and/or saturated fat have been correlated with mean arterial pressure (MAP) rises in sensitive strains of rats. Dysregulation of sodium and/or water reabsorption by the kidney may contribute. Using radiotelemetry and parallel semiquantitative immunoblotting, we examined the effects of various diets on MAP and the regulation of abundance of the major renal sodium and water transport proteins in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In study 1, rats ( approximately 275 g) were fed one of four diets for 4 wk (n = 6/group): 1) control, 2) 65% fructose, 3) control + added NaCl (2.59%), or 4) fructose + NaCl. In study 2, 5% butter (fat) was added to the above four diets. Both fat and NaCl, but not fructose, caused modest rises in MAP (5-10 mmHg) and increased the day-to-night ratio in diastolic blood pressure. NaCl or fructose increased kidney size. Creatinine clearance was increased by salt or fat, and fractional excretion of sodium was decreased by fat. In study 1, high NaCl markedly reduced plasma renin and aldosterone and its regulated proteins in whole kidney, i.e., the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter and the alpha- and gamma (70-kDa band)-subunits of the epithelial sodium channel. These effects were blunted by fat. Fructose increased the abundance of the sodium phosphate cotransporter, whereas it decreased the bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter and aquaporin-2. Overall, doubling of dietary fat appeared to impair dietary sodium adaptation, i.e., blunt the downregulation of aldosterone-mediated effects, thus allowing blood pressure to rise at an accelerated rate.

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