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Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Sep 15;37(6):793-802.

Oxidative DNA damage induced by a hydroperoxide derivative of cyclophosphamide.

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Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan.


Interstrand DNA cross-linking has been considered to be the primary action mechanism of cyclophosphamide (CP) and its hydroperoxide derivative, 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC). To clarify the mechanism of anti-tumor effects by 4-HC, we investigated DNA damage in a human leukemia cell line, HL-60, and its H(2)O(2)-resistant clone HP100. Apoptosis DNA ladder formation was detected in HL-60 cells treated with 4-HC, whereas it was not observed in HP100 cells. 4-HC significantly increased 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, in HL-60 cells. On the other hand, CP did not significantly induce 8-oxodG formation and apoptosis in HL-60 cells under the same conditions as did 4-HC. Using (32)P-labeled DNA fragments from the human p53 tumor suppressor gene, 4-HC was found to cause Cu(II)-mediated oxidative DNA damage, but CP did not. Catalase inhibited 4-HC-induced DNA damage, including 8-oxodG formation, suggesting the involvement of H(2)O(2). The generation of H(2)O(2) during 4-HC degradation was ascertained by procedures using scopoletin and potassium iodide. We conclude that, in addition to DNA cross-linking, oxidative DNA damage through H(2)O(2) generation may participate in the anti-tumor effects of 4-HC.

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