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Urology. 2004 Aug;64(2):212-7.

Impact of race on survival in men with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

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Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.



To determine whether blacks with hormone-refractory prostate cancer have shorter survival compared with whites with the same disease.


Data from eight multicenter trials (four Phase II and four randomized Phase III studies) conducted by the Cancer and Leukemia Group B were combined. Eligible patients had progressive prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapy (with documented castration levels of testosterone), an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2, and adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function. The proportional hazards model was used to assess the prognostic importance of race, adjusting for important factors. All statistical tests were two-sided.


Of the 1183 patients, 15% were blacks, 45% of patients had a Gleason sum of 8 or greater, and the median age was 71 years. Of the 1183 patients, 35% had measurable disease and 89% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 1. Blacks were younger, had a shorter interval between diagnosis and study entry, and had greater prostate-specific antigen levels, lower hemoglobin levels, and a lower likelihood of prior prostatectomy than whites. The median survival was 15 months (95% confidence interval 12 to 18) for blacks compared with 14 months (95% confidence interval 13 to 15) for whites. In a multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, performance status, presence of visceral disease, hemoglobin, Gleason sum, prostate-specific antigen level, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and years since diagnosis, the hazard ratio was 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.02, P = 0.08) for blacks compared with whites.


No statistically significant difference was found in overall survival between blacks and whites with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

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