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J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004 Aug;72(4):712-22.

Meta-analysis of the efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: differences between men and women.

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Department of Psychology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.


Gender differences in the efficacy of nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) were examined in a meta-analytical review of 90 effect sizes obtained from a sample of 21 double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized studies. Although NRT was more effective for men than placebo at 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-ups, the benefits of NRT for women were clearly evident only at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Giving NRT in conjunction with high-intensity nonpharmacological support was more important for women than men. That is, NRT and low support were efficacious for women at only short-term follow-up, and men benefited from NRT at all the follow-ups regardless of the intensity of the adjunct support. The results suggest that long-term maintenance of NRT treatment gains decrease more rapidly for women than men.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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