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World J Urol. 2004 Nov;22(5):382-91. Epub 2004 Aug 6.

Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound evaluation of penile and testicular masses.

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Department of Radiologic Imaging, Athens General Hospital G. Gennimatas, Athens, Greece.


The purpose of this study is to present the role of ultrasonography and MRI in the investigation of testicular and penile masses, as well as to review the literature. This article is based on our experience with 230 patients who presented with acute or subacute scrotal pain or painless enlargement of the scrotum or penis. Gray scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) were applied in all cases. In 73 cases, the final diagnosis was established by surgery and in 157 cases by follow-up. MRI was performed in 48 cases. Ultrasonography was the initial imaging modality in all cases. It provided detailed anatomic information with high sensitivity and accuracy in cases of torsion, inflammation, varicocele and trauma. In cases of tumor, US showed the presence of the mass in all cases, while it additionally revealed certain characteristic features of tissue constitution and blood supply. In most cases, differentiation between various types of tumors or differentiation between malignant and benign lesions was impossible. MRI, besides the detailed anatomic imaging, also provided a certain degree of tissue specificity. MRI could help in the detection and staging of penile cancer and in the evaluation of testicular and scrotal masses, especially when a diagnostic dilemma occurred on ultrasonographic examination. Ultrasonography, combining gray scale and color techniques, is irreplaceable in the diagnostic work-up of scrotal and penile masses, while MRI can serve as a problem solving diagnostic modality.

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