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J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 22;279(43):44362-9. Epub 2004 Aug 5.

A two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase involved in actinorhodin biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor.

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  • 1Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie des Centres Redox Biologiques, DRDC-CEA/CNRS/UniversitéJoseph Fourier, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble 9, France.


The two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenases belong to an emerging class of enzymes involved in oxidation reactions in a number of metabolic and biosynthetic pathways in microorganisms. One component is a NAD(P)H:flavin oxidoreductase, which provides a reduced flavin to the second component, the proper monooxygenase. There, the reduced flavin activates molecular oxygen for substrate oxidation. Here, we study the flavin reductase ActVB and ActVA-ORF5 gene product, both reported to be involved in the last step of biosynthesis of the natural antibiotic actinorhodin in Streptomyces coelicolor. For the first time we show that ActVA-ORF5 is a FMN-dependent monooxygenase that together with the help of the flavin reductase ActVB catalyzes the oxidation reaction. The mechanism of the transfer of reduced FMN between ActVB and ActVA-ORF5 has been investigated. Dissociation constant values for oxidized and reduced flavin (FMNox and FMNred) with regard to ActVB and ActVA-ORF5 have been determined. The data clearly demonstrate a thermodynamic transfer of FMNred from ActVB to ActVA-ORF5 without involving a particular interaction between the two protein components. In full agreement with these data, we propose a reaction mechanism in which FMNox binds to ActVB, where it is reduced, and the resulting FMNred moves to ActVA-ORF5, where it reacts with O2 to generate a flavinperoxide intermediate. A direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of such species within ActVA-ORF5 is reported.

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