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Mech Dev. 2004 Sep;121(9):1137-43.

Gain- and loss-of-function in chick embryos by electroporation.

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Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Life Sciences, and Institute of Development, Aging & Cancer, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi 4-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575, Japan.


It remained very difficult to manipulate gene expression in chick embryos until the advent of in ovo electroporation which enabled the induction of both gain-of-function, and recently loss-of-function, of a gene of interest at a specific developmental stage. Gain-of-function by electroporation is so effective that it has become widely adopted in developmental studies in the chick. Recently, it became possible to induce loss-of-function by introducing an siRNA expression vector by electroporation. In this review, the methods of electroporation for gain-of-function and for loss-of-function by siRNA are discussed.

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