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Bioelectrochemistry. 2004 Sep;64(2):113-24.

Techniques of signal generation required for electropermeabilization. Survey of electropermeabilization devices.

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University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, SI-1000, Slovenia.


Electropermeabilization is a phenomenon that transiently increases permeability of the cell plasma membrane. In the state of high permeability, the plasma membrane allows ions, small and large molecules to be introduced into the cytoplasm, although the cell plasma membrane represents a considerable barrier for them in its normal state. Besides introduction of various substances to cell cytoplasm, permeabilized cell membrane allows cell fusion or insertion of proteins to the cell membrane. Efficiency of all these applications strongly depends on parameters of electric pulses that are delivered to the treated object using specially developed electrodes and electronic devices--electroporators. In this paper we present and compare most commonly used techniques of signal generation required for electropermeabilization. In addition, we present an overview of commercially available electroporators and electroporation systems that were described in accessible literature.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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