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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004 Sep;54(3):628-33. Epub 2004 Aug 4.

Predominance and genetic diversity of community- and hospital-acquired CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in York, UK.

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Antimicrobial Agents Research Group, Division of Immunobiology and Infection, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Vincent Drive, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.



This study was conducted to detect the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae within the faecal flora of both community- and hospital-based patients in York and to characterize the bla(TEM), bla(SHV) and bla(CTX-M) genes present in these isolates.


One thousand faeces samples were collected and screened at York Hospital during October-December 2003. Ninety-five non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins were recovered; 22 isolates were selected for further study on the basis of a positive double disc diffusion test for ESBL production. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed to a range of antibiotics. The TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes were detected by PCR and the DNA sequenced.


The distribution of ESBL-positive isolates from the hospital and community was 1.4:1. These included nine Escherichia coli, seven Enterobacter cloacae, four Citrobacter freundii and a single isolate each of Klebsiella spp. and Salmonella spp. A total of 17 isolates contained bla(CTX-M) (five bla(CTX-M-15), three bla(CTX-M-14) and nine bla(CTX-M-9)). ISEcp1 was present in isolates expressing CTX-M-14 and -15, but was absent upstream of In60-associated bla(CTX-M-9). E. coli isolates also contained either a bla(TEM-1) or bla(TEM-2), whereas six of the E. cloacae carried bla(SHV-12) and the Klebsiella spp. bla(SHV-36) in addition to bla(CTX-M-9). The single Salmonella spp. carried bla(SHV-12).


The overall prevalence of ESBL in isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from York was 1.9%. ESBL-producing isolates were found in both the community and hospital, with the CTX-M type most common. This is also the first report of an ESBL-producing Salmonella in the UK.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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