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J Am Chem Soc. 2004 Aug 11;126(31):9735-49.

Spectroscopic and computational studies of Co2+corrinoids: spectral and electronic properties of the biologically relevant base-on and base-off forms of Co2+cobalamin.

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Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.


Co(2+)cobalmain (Co(2+)Cbl) is implicated in the catalytic cycles of all adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl)-dependent enzymes, as in each case catalysis is initiated through homolytic cleavage of the cofactor's Co-C bond. The rate of Co-C bond homolysis, while slow for the free cofactor, is accelerated by 12 orders of magnitude when AdoCbl is bound to the protein active site, possibly through enzyme-mediated stabilization of the post-homolysis products. As an essential step toward the elucidation of the mechanism of enzymatic Co-C bond activation, we employed electronic absorption (Abs), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and resonance Raman spectroscopies to characterize the electronic excited states of Co(2+)Cbl and Co(2+)cobinamide (Co(2+)Cbi(+), a cobalamin derivative that lacks the nucleotide loop and 5,6-dimethylbenzimazole (DMB) base and instead binds a water molecule in the lower axial position). Although relatively modest differences exist between the Abs spectra of these two Co(2+)corrinoid species, MCD data reveal that substitution of the lower axial ligand gives rise to dramatic changes in the low-energy region where Co(2+)-centered ligand field transitions are expected to occur. Our quantitative analysis of these spectral changes within the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations indicates that corrin-based pi --> pi transitions, which dominate the Co(2+)corrinoid Abs spectra, are essentially insulated from perturbations of the lower ligand environment. Contrastingly, the Co(2+)-centered ligand field transitions, which are observed here for the first time using MCD spectroscopy, are extremely sensitive to alterations in the Co(2+) ligand environment and thus may serve as excellent reporters of enzyme-induced perturbations of the Co(2+) state. The power of this combined spectroscopic/computational methodology for studying Co(2+)corrinoid/enzyme active site interactions is demonstrated by the dramatic changes in the MCD spectrum as Co(2+)Cbi(+) binds to the adenosyltransferase CobA.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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