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Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2004 Apr;73(3-4):155-72.

Resolvins, docosatrienes, and neuroprotectins, novel omega-3-derived mediators, and their aspirin-triggered endogenous epimers: an overview of their protective roles in catabasis.

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Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Center for Experimental Therapeutics and Reperfusion Injury, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


The molecular basis for the beneficial impact of essential omega-3 fatty acids is of considerable interest. Recently, novel mediators generated from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that displayed potent bioactions were first identified in resolving inflammatory exudates [J. Exp. Med. 192 (2000) 1197; J. Exp. Med. 196 (2002) 1025] and in tissues enriched with DHA [J. Exp. Med. 196 (2002) 1025; J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 14677]. The trivial names Resolvin (resolution phase interaction products) and docosatrienes were introduced for the bioactive compounds belonging to these novel series because they demonstrate potent anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory actions. The compounds derived from eicosapentaenoic acid carrying potent biological actions (i.e., 1-10 nM range) are designated E series, given their EPA precursor, and denoted as Resolvins of the E series (Resolvin E1 or RvE1), and those biosynthesized from the precursor docosahexaenoic acid are Resolvins of the D series (Resolvin D1 or RvD1). Bioactive members from DHA with conjugated triene structures are docosatrienes (DT) that are immunoregulatory [J. Exp. Med. 196 (2002) 1025; J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 14677], and neuroprotective [J. Biol. Chem., 278 (2003) 43807; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. [submitted for publication]] and are termed neuroprotectins. The specific receptors for these novel bioactive products from omega-3 EPA and DHA are abbreviated Resolvin D receptors (i.e., ResoDR1), Resolvin E receptor (ResoER1; RER1), and neuroprotectin D receptors (NPDR), respectively, in recognition of their respective cognate ligands. Aspirin treatment impacts biosynthesis of these compounds and a related series by triggering endogenous formation of the 17R-D series Resolvins and docosatrienes. These novel epimers are denoted as aspirin-triggered (AT)-RvDs and -DTs, and possess potent anti-inflammatory actions in vivo essentially equivalent to their 17S series pathway products. Here, we provide a syntomy overview of the formation and actions of these newly uncovered pathways and products as well as highlight their role(s) as endogenous protective mediators generated in anti-inflammation and catabasis.

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