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J Bioinform Comput Biol. 2003 Apr;1(1):95-117.

RAPTOR: optimal protein threading by linear programming.

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  • 1Department of Computer Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. N2L 3G1, Canada.


This paper presents a novel linear programming approach to do protein 3-dimensional (3D) structure prediction via threading. Based on the contact map graph of the protein 3D structure template, the protein threading problem is formulated as a large scale integer programming (IP) problem. The IP formulation is then relaxed to a linear programming (LP) problem, and then solved by the canonical branch-and-bound method. The final solution is globally optimal with respect to energy functions. In particular, our energy function includes pairwise interaction preferences and allowing variable gaps which are two key factors in making the protein threading problem NP-hard. A surprising result is that, most of the time, the relaxed linear programs generate integral solutions directly. Our algorithm has been implemented as a software package RAPTOR-RApid Protein Threading by Operation Research technique. Large scale benchmark test for fold recognition shows that RAPTOR significantly outperforms other programs at the fold similarity level. The CAFASP3 evaluation, a blind and public test by the protein structure prediction community, ranks RAPTOR as top 1, among individual prediction servers, in terms of the recognition capability and alignment accuracy for Fold Recognition (FR) family targets. RAPTOR also performs very well in recognizing the hard Homology Modeling (HM) targets. RAPTOR was implemented at the University of Waterloo and it can be accessed at

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