Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004 Aug;19(8):727-33.

Smell identification test as an indicator for cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

Author information

Department of Geriatrics, Medicine in Growth and Aging, Program in Health and Community Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.



The aim of the present study was to assess olfactory dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to compare utility of the olfactory tests as possible clinical markers.


Two olfactory identification tests (The Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test [CC-SIT] and the Picture-based Smell Identification Test [P-SIT]) and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered to patients with AD and age-matched controls. Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) genotypes of patients with AD were identified.


Patients with AD had significantly lower olfactory identification scores than age-matched non-demented elderly subjects in both olfactory assessments. In the AD group, the coefficient of correlation between the MMSE scores and the P-SIT scores was higher than that between the MMSE scores and the CC-SIT scores. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses for both tests indicated that the P-SIT discriminated AD patients from controls more reliably than did the CC-SIT. Within AD patients, those who were carrying one or two ApoE epsilon4 alleles had a higher coefficient of correlation between the MMSE scores and the P-SIT scores than patients without the ApoE epsilon4 allele.


The results suggest that a short and simple non-lexical olfactory identification test can be useful as a clinical marker of AD appropriate for Japanese elderly population.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons


    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center