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Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004 Aug;19(8):727-33.

Smell identification test as an indicator for cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

Author information

1
Department of Geriatrics, Medicine in Growth and Aging, Program in Health and Community Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan. yus@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of the present study was to assess olfactory dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to compare utility of the olfactory tests as possible clinical markers.

METHODS:

Two olfactory identification tests (The Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test [CC-SIT] and the Picture-based Smell Identification Test [P-SIT]) and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered to patients with AD and age-matched controls. Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) genotypes of patients with AD were identified.

RESULTS:

Patients with AD had significantly lower olfactory identification scores than age-matched non-demented elderly subjects in both olfactory assessments. In the AD group, the coefficient of correlation between the MMSE scores and the P-SIT scores was higher than that between the MMSE scores and the CC-SIT scores. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses for both tests indicated that the P-SIT discriminated AD patients from controls more reliably than did the CC-SIT. Within AD patients, those who were carrying one or two ApoE epsilon4 alleles had a higher coefficient of correlation between the MMSE scores and the P-SIT scores than patients without the ApoE epsilon4 allele.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results suggest that a short and simple non-lexical olfactory identification test can be useful as a clinical marker of AD appropriate for Japanese elderly population.

PMID:
15290695
DOI:
10.1002/gps.1161
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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