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Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004 Nov;29(10):1290-9.

Sniffing a human sex-steroid derived compound affects mood and autonomic arousal in a dose-dependent manner.

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Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, 3210 Tolman Hall MC 1650, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.


The effects of sniffing different concentrations of the human sex-steroid derived compound 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) on autonomic nervous system function and mood were measured in 60 subjects. The effects were sex-specific and concentration-dependent. Only high concentrations of AND (0.00625 M) increased positive mood (p < 0.03) and decreased negative mood (p < 0.05) in women compared to men, and had sympathetic-like effects in women (p < 0.003), and parasympathetic-like effects in men (p < 0.05). These findings further implicate AND in chemical communication between humans, but pose questions as to the path by which AND is transduced, whether through chemical sensing or transdermal diffusion.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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