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Chemosphere. 2004 Oct;57(1):21-5.

Characterisation and analysis of persistent organic pollutants and major, minor and trace elements in Calabash chalk.

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School of Applied Sciences, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK.


Analysis of Calabash chalk has been done using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with mass selective detection (MSD). It was found by XRD that the composition of Calabash chalk was an aluminium silicate hydroxide from the kaolin clay group with the possible formula Al(2)Si(2)O(5)(OH)(4). Multi-elemental analysis by EDXRF was able to quantify 22 elements in Calabash chalk including lead at a mean concentration of approximately 40 mg/kg. A range of persistent organic pollutants were identified and quantified in Calabash chalk including alpha lindane, endrin, endosulphan II and p,p'-DDD using PFE-GC-MSD.

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