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Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Aug;161(8):1370-6.

Acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in disaster or rescue workers.

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Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814-4799, USA.



The events of Sept. 11, 2001, highlighted the importance of understanding the effects of trauma on disaster workers. To better plan for the health care of disaster workers, this study examined acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), early dissociative symptoms, depression, and health care utilization in disaster workers.


Exposed disaster workers (N=207) and unexposed comparison subjects (N=421) were examined at 2, 7, and 13 months after an airplane crash.


Exposed disaster workers had significantly higher rates of acute stress disorder, PTSD at 13 months, depression at 7 months, and depression at 13 months than comparison subjects. Those who were younger and single were more likely to develop acute stress disorder. Exposed disaster workers with acute stress disorder were 3.93 times more likely to be depressed at 7 months. Those with high exposure and previous disaster experience or who had acute stress disorder were more likely to develop PTSD. Similarly, those who were depressed at 7 months were 9.5 times more likely to have PTSD. Those who were depressed at 13 months were 7.96 times more likely to also meet PTSD criteria. More exposed disaster workers than comparison subjects obtained medical care for emotional problems at 2, 7, and 13 months. Overall, 40.5% of exposed disaster workers versus 20.4% of comparison subjects had acute stress disorder, depression at 13 months, or PTSD.


Exposed disaster workers are at increased risk of acute stress disorder, depression, or PTSD and seek care for emotional problems at an increased rate.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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