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Trends Biotechnol. 2004 Aug;22(8):411-6.

Biomarker discovery and validation: technologies and integrative approaches.

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  • 1Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C., Spring House, PA 19477, USA.


The emerging field of biomarkers has applications in the diagnosis, staging, prognosis and monitoring of disease progression, as well as in the monitoring of clinical responses to a therapeutic intervention and the development and delivery of personalized treatments to reduce attrition in clinical trials. Moreover, biomarkers have a positive impact on health economics. The word "biomarker" has been used extensively across therapeutic areas and many disciplines, and its nature takes into consideration clinical, physiological, biochemical, developmental, morphological and molecular measures. In drug trials, biomarkers have been proposed for use in efficacy determination and patient population stratification, in deducing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships and in safety monitoring. The interfacing and integration of different technologies for data collection and analysis are pivotal to biomarker identification, characterization, validation and application. "Integrative functional informatics" represents a novel direction in such technology integration.

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