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Nephron. 1992;61(1):73-6.

Low urine citrate excretion as main risk factor for recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in males.

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Istituto di Clinica Medica 1, Università di Pisa, Italy.


To better define the relative role of metabolic factors in the recurrence of stone formation, we studied the 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium (uCa), citrate (uCit), oxalic acid (uOx) and uric acid (uUa) in 73 male patients with primary calcium oxalate urolithiasis. According to the episodes of stone formation per year, we identified 51 recurrent stone formers (RSF) and 22 single stone formers (SSF). 20 normal adult males constituted the control group (C). uCa and uOx were higher in RSF than in C, but quite similar in SSF and RSF. The only difference between RSF and SSF was uCit, significantly lower (2.06 +/- 1.04 mmol/24 h) in RSF than in SSF (3.22 +/- 1.18 mmol/24 h, p less than 0.001) and in C (3.42 +/- 1.33 mmol/24 h, p less than 0.001). Hypocitraturia (uCit less than 1.5 mmol/24 h) was found in 16 of 51 RSF (31.4%) and in 1 of 22 SSF (4.5%). These data confirm that high levels of uCa and uOx represent a risk factor for lithogenesis, but also strongly indicate the low uCit excretion as the most important urinary abnormality accounting for the recurrence of calcium oxalate stones.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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