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Magn Reson Med. 2004 Aug;52(2):354-61.

Imaging of myocardial infarction for diagnosis and intervention using real-time interactive MRI without ECG-gating or breath-holding.

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Laboratory of Cardiac Energetics, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1061, USA.


Current methods for MRI of infarcted myocardium require ECG-gating and breath-holding during contrast-enhanced segmented k-space inversion-recovery (IR) imaging. However, ECG-gating can be problematic in MRI, and breath-holding can be difficult for some patients. This work demonstrates that infarcted tissue can be visualized without ECG-gating or breath-holding with the use of intermittent inversion pulses during real-time (RT) interactive imaging with steady-state free precession (SSFP). The sequence generates a RT image stream containing a myocardium-nulled image every few frames, which allows nearly simultaneous observation of both infarcted regions and wall motion. First-pass perfusion and wall motion can be simultaneously observed with minor parameter modifications. This method may reduce diagnostic scan time, expand the target population, improve patient comfort, and facilitate targeted, interventional treatment of infarcted myocardium. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the MRM website at

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