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J Comp Neurol. 2004 Aug 30;476(4):363-87.

Anatomical and functional organization of somatosensory areas of the lateral fissure of the New World titi monkey (Callicebus moloch).

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Vanderbilt University, Department of Psychology, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA.


The organization of anterior and lateral somatosensory cortex was investigated in titi monkeys (Callicebus moloch). Multiunit microelectrode recordings were used to identify multiple representations of the body, and anatomical tracer injections were used to reveal connections. (1) Representations of the face were identified in areas 3a, 3b, 1, S2, and the parietal ventral area (PV). In area 3b, the face was represented from chin/lower lip to upper lip and neck/upper face in a rostrocaudal sequence. The representation of the face in area 1 mirrored that of area 3b. Another face representation was located in area 3a. Adjoining face representations in S2 and PV exhibited mirror-image patterns to those of areas 3b and 1. (2) Two representations of the body, the rostral and caudal ventral somatosensory areas (VSr and VSc), were found in the dorsal part of the insula. VSc was roughly a reversal image of the S2 body representation, and VSr was roughly a reversal of PV. (3) Neurons in the insula next to VSr and VSc responded to auditory stimuli or to both auditory and somatosensory stimuli. (4) Injections of tracers within the hand representations in areas 3b, 1, and S2 revealed reciprocal connections between these three areas. Injections in areas 3b and 1 labeled the ventroposterior nucleus, whereas injections in S2 labeled the inferior ventroposterior nucleus. The present study demonstrates features of somatosensory cortex of other monkeys in titi monkeys, while revealing additional features that likely apply to other primates.

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