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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004 Aug;128(2):278-83.

Late incidence and predictors of persistent or recurrent heart failure in patients with mitral prosthetic valves.

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1
Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Epidemiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, 40 Ruskin Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Y 4W7. mruel@ottawaheart.ca

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The study's objective was to examine factors associated with persistent or recurrent congestive heart failure after mitral valve replacement.

METHODS:

Patients who underwent mitral valve replacement with contemporary prostheses (N = 708) were followed with annual clinical assessment and echocardiography. Cox proportional hazard models were developed to evaluate the impact of demographic, comorbid, and valve-related variables on the occurrence of congestive heart failure after mitral valve replacement, defined as the composite outcome of New York Heart Association class III or IV symptoms or death caused by congestive heart failure postoperatively. Factors associated with all-cause mortality were also examined. Models were bootstrapped 1000 times.

RESULTS:

The total follow-up was 3376 patient-years (mean 4.8 +/- 3.7 years, range 60 days to 17.1 years). Freedom from New York Heart Association III or IV symptoms or death caused by congestive heart failure was 96.1% +/- 0.8%, 82.7% +/- 1.7%, 66.4% +/- 3.0%, and 38.8% +/- 6.9% at 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. Preoperative New York Heart Association class, left ventricular grade, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, smoking, persistent tricuspid regurgitation, and redo status predicted congestive heart failure postoperatively (all P <.05). Patients who underwent mitral valve replacement for pure mitral stenosis had less congestive heart failure events after surgery than those with regurgitation or mixed disease. Prosthesis size and elevated transprosthesis gradients were not predictive of freedom from congestive heart failure after mitral valve replacement. Atrial fibrillation, persistent tricuspid regurgitation, and surgical referral for mitral valve replacement at an advanced functional stage were also risk factors for all-cause mortality.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study identifies the incidence of and risk factors for congestive heart failure and death late after mitral valve replacement. Although prosthesis size has no effect, other potentially modifiable factors such as atrial fibrillation, persistent tricuspid regurgitation, and late surgical referral have a negative impact on freedom from congestive heart failure and overall survival after mitral valve replacement.

PMID:
15282466
DOI:
10.1016/j.jtcvs.2003.11.048
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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