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Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Aug;80(2):504-13.

Food patterns measured by factor analysis and anthropometric changes in adults.

Author information

1
Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, 9th Floor, Boston, MA 02111, USA. pknewby@post.harvard.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Sixty-five percent of US adults are overweight, and 31% of these adults are obese. Obesity results from weight gains over time; however, dietary determinants of weight gain remain controversial.

OBJECTIVE:

Our objective was to examine whether food patterns derived from exploratory factor analysis are related to anthropometric changes. We hypothesized that we would derive a healthy food pattern and that it would predict smaller changes in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (in cm) than would other food patterns in models adjusted for baseline anthropometric measures.

DESIGN:

The subjects were 459 healthy men and women participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Diet was assessed by using 7-d dietary records, from which 40 food groups were formed and entered into a factor analysis.

RESULTS:

Six food patterns were derived. Factor 1 (reduced-fat dairy products, fruit, and fiber) was most strongly associated with fiber (r = 0.39) and loaded heavily on reduced-fat dairy products, cereal, and fruit and loaded moderately on fruit juice, nonwhite bread, nuts and seeds, whole grains, and beans and legumes. In a multivariate-adjusted model in which the highest and lowest quintiles were compared, factor 1 was inversely associated with annual change in BMI (beta = -0.51; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.20; P < 0.05; P for trend < 0.01) in women and inversely associated with annual change in waist circumference (beta = -1.06 cm; 95% CI: -1.88, -0.24 cm; P < 0.05; P for trend = 0.04) in both sexes.

CONCLUSION:

Our results suggest that a pattern rich in reduced-fat dairy products and high-fiber foods may lead to smaller gains in BMI in women and smaller gains in waist circumference in both women and men.

PMID:
15277177
DOI:
10.1093/ajcn/80.2.504
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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