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Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Aug;80(2):396-403.

Carotenoid bioavailability is higher from salads ingested with full-fat than with fat-reduced salad dressings as measured with electrochemical detection.

Author information

1
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and the Center for Designing Foods to Improve Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1120, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The amount of dietary fat required for optimal bioavailability of carotenoids in plant matrices is not clearly defined.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective was to quantify the appearance of carotenoids in plasma chylomicrons after subjects ingested fresh vegetable salads with fat-free, reduced-fat, or full-fat salad dressings.

DESIGN:

The subjects (n = 7) each consumed 3 salads consisting of equivalent amounts of spinach, romaine lettuce, cherry tomatoes, and carrots with salad dressings containing 0, 6, or 28 g canola oil. The salads were consumed in random order separated by washout periods of > or =2 wk. Blood samples were collected hourly from 0 to 12 h. Chylomicrons were isolated by ultracentrifugation, and carotenoid absorption was analyzed by HPLC with coulometric array detection.

RESULTS:

After ingestion of the salads with fat-free salad dressing, the appearance of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene in chylomicrons was negligible. After ingestion of the salads with reduced-fat salad dressing, the appearance of the carotenoids in plasma chylomicrons increased relative to that after ingestion of the salads with fat-free salad dressing (P < 0.04). Similarly, the appearance of the carotenoids in plasma chylomicrons was higher after the ingestion of salads with full-fat than with reduced-fat salad dressing (P < 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

High-sensitivity HPLC with coulometric array detection enabled us to quantify the intestinal absorption of carotenoids ingested from a single vegetable salad. Essentially no absorption of carotenoids was observed when salads with fat-free salad dressing were consumed. A substantially greater absorption of carotenoids was observed when salads were consumed with full-fat than with reduced-fat salad dressing.

PMID:
15277161
DOI:
10.1093/ajcn/80.2.396
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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