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Am J Cardiol. 2004 Aug 1;94(3):343-6.

Clinical characteristics and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame counts in women with transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome.

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Division of Cardiovascular Diseases and Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.


The characteristics of 16 women with transient left ventricular (LV) apical ballooning syndrome in a United States population are presented. Additionally, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame counts were evaluated during the acute period. Patients generally presented with anterior ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome in the absence of obstructive coronary disease. All patients had LV apical wall motion abnormalities. An acute emotional or physiologic stressor preceded most cases. TIMI frame counts were abnormal in all patients and often abnormal in all 3 major coronary vessels, suggesting that the diffuse impairment of coronary microcirculatory function may play a role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome.

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