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Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2003 May;29(5):578-83.

Solitude experiences: varieties, settings, and individual differences.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. clong@psych.umass.edu

Abstract

Solitude may be positive or negative, depending on situational and personal factors. From prior research, nine types of solitude were identified. Based on data from a questionnaire study of undergraduate participants, factor analysis suggests that these nine types can be reduced to three dimensions, two positive and one negative. These are, respectively, Inner-Directed Solitude (characterized by self-discovery and inner peace), Outer-Directed Solitude (characterized by intimacy and spirituality), and Loneliness. Personality and value correlates, as well as situational correlates, of the various types of solitude also were explored.

PMID:
15272992
DOI:
10.1177/0146167203029005003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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