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Blood. 2004 Nov 15;104(10):3198-204. Epub 2004 Jul 22.

PDGF-D induces macrophage recruitment, increased interstitial pressure, and blood vessel maturation during angiogenesis.

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Molecular/Cancer Biology Laboratory, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Helsinki University, Finland.


Platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) is a recently characterized member of the PDGF family with unknown in vivo functions. We investigated the effects of PDGF-D in transgenic mice by expressing it in basal epidermal cells and then analyzed skin histology, interstitial fluid pressure, and wound healing. When compared with control mice, PDGF-D transgenic mice displayed increased numbers of macrophages and elevated interstitial fluid pressure in the dermis. Wound healing in the transgenic mice was characterized by increased cell density and enhanced recruitment of macrophages. Macrophage recruitment was also the characteristic response when PDGF-D was expressed in skeletal muscle or ear by an adeno-associated virus vector. Combined expression of PDGF-D with vascular endothelial growth factor-E (VEGF-E) led to increased pericyte/smooth muscle cell coating of the VEGF-E-induced vessels and inhibition of the vascular leakiness that accompanies VEGF-E-induced angiogenesis. These results show that full-length PDGF-D is activated in tissues and is capable of increasing interstitial fluid pressure and macrophage recruitment and the maturation of blood vessels in angiogenic processes.

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